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CHLOROPHYLL

 


Chlorophyll is the molecule that absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to synthesise carbohydrates from CO2 and water. This process is known as photosynthesis and is the basis for sustaining the life processes of all plants. Since animals and humans obtain their food supply by eating plants, photosynthesis can be said to be the source of our life also.

The chlorophyll molecule is the active part that absorbs the sunlight, but just as with hemoglobin, in order to do its job (synthesising carbohydrates) it needs to be attached to the backbone of a very complicated protein. This protein may look haphazard in design, but it has exactly the correct structure to orient the chlorophyll molecules in the optimal position to enable them to react with nearby CO2 and H2O molecules in a very efficient manner. Several chlorophyll molecules are lurking inside this bacterial photoreceptor protein (right).

Chlorophyll is a green compound found in leaves and green stems of plants. Initially, it was assumed that chlorophyll was a single compound but in 1864 Stokes showed by spectroscopy that chlorophyll was a mixture. If dried leaves are powdered and digested with ethanol, after concentration of the solvent, 'crystalline' chlorophyll is obtained, but if ether or aqueous acetone is used instead of ethanol, the product is 'amorphous' chlorophyll. In 1912, Willstatter et al. (1) showed that chlorophyll was a mixture of two compounds, chlorophyll-a and
chlorophyll-b: